An email server, also known as a mail server, is a network application or computer that serves as a virtual post office. Incoming mail is stored on the server for distribution to local users, and outgoing mail is sent out. The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transmit and receive messages utilising a client-server application model (SMTP).

An email server may also be known as a mail or message transfer agent..

A mail server is a computer system that sends and receives emails. Sending and receiving are frequently handled by numerous different components.

Mail server software is required for a computer system to function as a mail server. The system administrator can use this programme to create and manage email accounts for any of the server’s domains.

When a user sends an email from their email account, the mail server connects to an external mail server and delivers the email message via the SMTP protocol. The message is subsequently delivered to the external mail server, which checks that the email address in question exists and is legitimate.

  1. This process is executed by two protocols::
    • )SMTP Protocol stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
    • ︎)POP3 Protocol stands for Post Office Protocol version 3s

When you use an email service to send an email, the email service connects to an SMTP server. The SMTP Protocol is used to send messages from a client to a server and from a server to another server.

When you receive and download messages or emails to your email service or email client, you use a Pop3 server.

How an Email is sent?
  • Step 1: Connecting to SMTP Server

Your email service or provider, such as Gmail, Exchange, Office 365, or Zimbra, will connect to the SMTP server when you send an email.

At this point, your email provider will send certain crucial information to the SMTP server, such as your email address, the message body, and the recipient’s email address.

  • Step 2: Preocessing the recipients Email domain

The SMTP server will now identify and process the email address of the recipient. If you send an email to someone else in your company, the message will go straight to the IMAP or POP3 server.

Otherwise, if you’re sending an email to a different firm, the SMTP server will need to connect with that company’s email server.

  • Step 3: Identifying the recipient’s IP

Your SMTP server will need to connect to DNS (Domain Name System) to locate the recipient’s server at this point.

The DNS functions similarly to a translation system. It will assist in the translation of the recipient’s domain into an IP address. By the way, an IP address is a one-of-a-kind number that identifies a computer or server that is connected to the internet.

  • Step 4: Delivering the Email

Throughout most cases, your email will pass through several unrelated SMTP servers before arriving at the SMTP server of the intended recipient.

The SMTP checks the message when it arrives at the recipient’s inbox and then sends it to the IMAP or POP3 server. The email is subsequently placed in a queue and processed until the recipient is able to access it